Female Reproductive Cycle
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Female Reproductive Cycle

Learn about the different stages of the female reproductive cycle, from oocyte development to menstruation and preparation for a potential pregnancy. Understand the processes that occur in the uterus, fallopian tubes, and endometrium during the menstrual cycle.

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@MagnificentComet

Questions and Answers

During which phase of the ovarian cycle does the uterus prepare for a potential fertilized egg by producing uterine milk?

Secretary phase

What is the primary function of the Luteinizing hormone in the ovarian cycle?

Causing the rupture of the follicle and ovulation

What happens to the endometrium during the menses phase?

It breaks down and is shed

What is the primary function of the corpus luteum in the ovarian cycle?

<p>To produce estrogen and progesterone</p> Signup and view all the answers

Which hormone spikes immediately after menses and reaches its peak around day 14?

<p>Estrogen</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary role of FSH in the ovarian cycle?

<p>Initiating the follicular phase to a lesser degree</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which stage of meiosis does the secondary oocyte pause?

<p>Metaphase II</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the approximate number of follicles that are present in the ovaries at birth?

<p>7,000,000</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary difference between the male and female sexual response?

<p>The absence of a latent period in females</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which stage of the ovarian cycle does the primordial follicle develop into a secondary follicle?

<p>Follicular phase</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of FSH in females?

<p>Promoting egg development</p> Signup and view all the answers

During which stage of puberty do the ovaries start producing eggs?

<p>Gonadarche</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of LH in females?

<p>Regulating ovulation</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary risk associated with estrogen decline in women?

<p>Osteoporosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the embryonic equivalent of ovaries in males?

<p>Testes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the ovarian follicles in the female reproductive system?

<p>To nurture and mature an immature egg cell</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the main difference between the uterine tubes and the uterus in the female reproductive system?

<p>The uterine tubes receive the ovulated oocyte, while the uterus nourishes the fertilized egg</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the peritoneal fluid in the female reproductive system?

<p>To move the ovulated oocyte through the uterine tubes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the fimbriae in the female reproductive system?

<p>To move the ovulated oocyte through the uterine tubes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the resident bacteria in the vagina?

<p>To keep the vagina healthy and free from infection</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of GnRH in the regulation of puberty?

<p>Initiating the release of FSH and LH in both sexes</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary source of estrogen during pregnancy?

<p>The placenta</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of smooth muscle in the uterus?

<p>Regulating the contraction and relaxation of the uterus during pregnancy</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary effect of estrogen decline in women?

<p>Increased risk of osteoporosis</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of HCG in pregnancy?

<p>Detecting pregnancy through home testing kits</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of LH in the ovarian cycle?

<p>Triggering ovulation and the release of an egg</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the testes in the male reproductive system?

<p>Regulating the release of testosterone and supporting sperm production</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary effect of GnRH on the anterior pituitary?

<p>Stimulating the release of FSH and LH</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of FSH in males?

<p>Stimulating the growth and development of sperm</p> Signup and view all the answers

What is the primary function of the ovarian follicles in the female reproductive system?

<p>Producing estrogen and progesterone in response to LH</p> Signup and view all the answers

Study Notes

Female Reproductive System

  • The clitoris is composed largely of erectile tissue.
  • Mammary glands produce milk for newborns and are present in both males and females.

Oogenesis

  • Ovum production begins before birth, and each month from puberty to menopause, several oocytes are released.
  • Usually, only one oocyte enters meiosis I.
  • The secondary oocyte is the larger cell containing nearly all the cytoplasm of the primary oocyte after division in meiosis I.
  • The first polar body is the smaller cell after meiosis I.
  • The secondary oocyte pauses in metaphase II; if not penetrated, it deteriorates, but if penetrated, it quickly completes meiosis II, producing one large ovum.

Ovarian Cycle

  • The follicle phase consists of: primordial follicle → primary follicle → secondary follicle → late secondary follicle → vesicular follicle → ovulation.
  • Ovulation marks the end of the follicular phase and the start of the luteal phase.
  • The luteal stage involves the granulosa cells of the vesicular follicle forming an endocrine structure called the corpus luteum.
  • The corpus luteum secretes progesterone and some estrogen; if no pregnancy occurs, it starts degenerating.

Ovarian and Menstrual Cycles

  • Estrogen and progesterone levels fluctuate during the ovarian cycle.
  • Pituitary hormone control regulates the ovarian cycle.

Female Sexual Response

  • The female sexual response is similar to the male response without ejaculation.
  • There is no latent period in women, like men.
  • Orgasm is not required for reproduction.

Menopause

  • Fertility in females peaks in the late 20s and declines slowly until 35 on average, after which it declines rapidly.
  • After a full year without menses, a woman is said to have completed menopause.
  • Reduced levels of estrogen and progesterone lead to several symptoms during menopause.
  • Post-menopause, lowered estrogen can lead to other issues with female overall health.

Puberty

  • Genetic determination of sex: females have XX chromosomes, while males have XY chromosomes.
  • If fertilized with X from Mom and X from Dad, the offspring is female; if fertilized with X from Mom and Y from Dad, the offspring is male.
  • The Y chromosome has the SRY gene, which is the sex-determining region that initiates testes development.

Sexual Differentiation

  • Reproductive system differentiation occurs at 5-6 weeks, where individuals are sexually indifferent.
  • At 7-8 weeks, XY individuals begin to show male parts, and at 8-9 weeks, XX individuals begin to show female parts.
  • Oocytes are immature eggs, and only one enters meiosis 1; meiosis is just mitosis twice.
  • Puberty begins with the release of GNRH from the hypothalamus, which triggers the release of sex hormones FSH and LH from the anterior pituitary.
  • In men, LH stimulates testosterone production, and FSH stimulates sperm production.
  • Fallopian tubes are similar to vas deferens, and the male penis is composed of the same tissue as the female clitoris.
  • The male scrotum is skin that protects the testes, similar to the labia minora, which protects the ovaries.

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