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Carbohydrate Metabolism Disorders

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40 Questions

What is the primary source of energy for brain tissue and RBCs?

Glucose

Which of the following processes is responsible for the breakdown of glucose into two pyruvates or two lactate molecules?

Glycolysis

What is the normal range of plasma glucose during normal metabolism?

4 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L

Why is glucose essential to the brain?

Because the brain cannot synthesize glucose, store glucose in significant amounts, metabolize substrates other than glucose and ketones or extract enough glucose from the extracellular fluid

What is the process of synthesizing glucose from non-carbohydrates materials?

Gluconeogenesis

What is the primary function of glycogenolysis?

Breaking down glycogen to glucose

What is the primary function of glycogenesis?

Synthesizing glycogen from glucose

What is the primary source of glucose for the body?

Both exogenous and endogenous sources

What percentage of newly diagnosed type 1 diabetes patients experience diabetic ketoacidosis?

25-40%

What is the goal of treating diabetic ketoacidosis?

To gradually correct hyperglycemia without precipitating hypoglycemia

Why do people with diabetes have elevated plasma chylomicron and VLDL levels?

Due to decreased lipoprotein lipase activity

What is the result of excess fatty acids in the liver that cannot be oxidized?

Increased triacylglycerol synthesis

What is the primary source of chylomicron synthesis?

Intestinal mucosal cells

Why do people with type 1 diabetes require exogenous insulin?

To compensate for low insulin production

What is the result of decreased insulin levels on lipoprotein lipase synthesis?

Decreased lipoprotein lipase synthesis

What are the two therapeutic regimens currently used to treat type 1 diabetes?

Standard and intensive insulin treatment

What is the primary response to increased blood glucose levels?

Release of insulin

Which of the following hormones stimulates the production of glucose in the liver by glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis?

Glucagon

What is the effect of insulin on enzymatic activity in many cell types?

Increase in enzymatic activity

What is the time course of insulin's action on increasing glucose transport into adipocytes and skeletal muscle cells?

Within seconds

What is the role of α-cells of the pancreas in glucose metabolism?

Secretion of glucagon

What is the effect of glucagon on glycolysis and glycogenesis?

Inhibition of glycolysis and glycogenesis

What is the term used to describe the hormones that oppose the action of insulin on glucose use?

Counter-regulatory hormones

What is the mechanism by which glucose enters cells?

One of two transport mechanisms

What is the approximate mean blood glucose level that can be achieved with intensive treatment in diabetes?

150 mg/dl

What is the approximate HbA1C level that indicates diabetes?

6.5% or more

What is the approximate reduction in long-term microvascular complications of diabetes with intensive therapy compared to standard care?

50% or more

What is the most common complication of insulin therapy in type 1 diabetes?

Hypoglycemia

What is the defect in type 1 diabetes that impairs the body's response to hypoglycemia?

Glucagon deficiency

What is the effect of intensive treatment regimens on the frequency of hypoglycemic episodes, coma, and seizures in type 1 diabetes?

It increases the frequency

What is the percentage of patients with type 1 diabetes who experience hypoglycemia due to excess insulin?

90% or more

What is the approximate time frame after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes when a deficiency of glucagon secretion is almost present?

4 years

What is the effect of insulin on gluconeogenesis?

Inhibits gluconeogenesis

How does insulin promote glucose transport into liver cells?

By indirectly promoting passive diffusion due to low intracellular glucose

What is the role of C-peptide in insulin biosynthesis?

Essential for proper insulin folding

Where is insulin stored in the cytosol?

In granules

What is the function of insulinase?

To degrade insulin

What is the approximate plasma half-life of insulin?

6 minutes

What stimulates insulin secretion?

Glucose and amino acids

What is the significance of C-peptide in plasma?

It is an indicator of insulin production and secretion

Test your knowledge of carbohydrate metabolism, including glycolysis, gluconeogenesis, glycogenesis, and glycogenolysis. Learn about the breakdown and synthesis of carbohydrates and their disorders.

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