Neurobiology of Memory; Classic Cases

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Which classic case had his temporal lobes removed in 1953, resulting in both retrograde and anterograde amnesia?

Patient H.M.

What model of memory was proposed by Atkinson & Shiffrin in 1968?

Multi-store ('modal') model

Which part of the brain was involved in supporting memory and was removed from patient H.M.?

Medial temporal lobes

What is proposed to store memories temporarily?

Hippocampus

What is the key role of the rhinal cortex?

Object recognition

What is consistent with the synaptic changes hypothesized by Hebb?

Long-term potentiation (LTP)

What plays a crucial role in the induction of LTP?

NMDA receptors and Ca+ influx

What underlies long-term changes associated with LTP?

Protein synthesis

What may diffuse back to presynaptic neurons in response to Ca+ influx?

Nitric oxide

What is proposed as the basis of long-term learning?

Changes in synaptic efficiency

What is proposed to be key for recognition memory in early animal models of amnesia?

Hippocampus

What results in object-recognition deficits in monkeys and rats?

Bilateral hippocampal damage

Where are LTP effects greatest?

Brain areas involved in learning and memory

What is proposed to be mediated by different mechanisms in various brain areas?

LTP

What is proposed to play a crucial role in memory of spatial location?

Hippocampus

Which structure is responsible for fear learning?

Amygdala

Which area of the brain does Alzheimer's Disease initially affect?

Medial temporal lobes and hippocampus

What is a characteristic of Korsakoff's Syndrome?

Associated with alcohol addiction

Which disorder is associated with the progressive loss of conceptual knowledge?

Semantic dementia

Which structure is responsible for memory storage?

Hippocampus

What are the characteristic features of Alzheimer's Disease?

Severe episodic memory deficits, amyloid plaques, and neurofibrillary tangles

Which syndrome is associated with damage in the medial diencephalon?

Korsakoff's Syndrome

What cognitive deficits are seen in patients with Alzheimer's Disease?

Deficits in episodic and semantic memory, impairment in social ability and personality

What is the cause of Korsakoff's amnesia?

Not likely to be damage to a single diencephalic structure

What is associated with the progressive loss of neurons in the left temporal lobe?

Semantic dementia

What type of amnesia did H.M. experience?

Mild retrograde and severe anterograde amnesia

What did Clive Wearing's memory impairment result from?

Herpes simplex encephalitis

Which memory type did Patient K.C. display a double dissociation between impairments?

Personal and semantic memory

What did R.B.'s case suggest about hippocampal damage?

Hippocampal damage alone can produce amnesia

What may concussions cause in terms of amnesia?

Retrograde amnesia for the period before the blow and some anterograde amnesia after

Which memory processes does Baddeley's 'modal model' explain?

Episodic memory learning and recall

What did the case of Jon, with developmental amnesia, show?

Impaired recall but largely intact recognition

What is the effect of different involvement of brain areas during encoding and retrieval on episodic and semantic memory?

Affects episodic and semantic memory differently

What is the relationship between anterograde amnesia and retrograde amnesia?

Anterograde amnesia often presents with retrograde amnesia, but they can be independent

What did the removal of H.M.'s temporal lobes result in?

Dramatic reduction of seizures but severe long-term memory loss

What type of memory did H.M. have intact despite his condition?

Short-term memory

What do consolidation gradients of retrograde amnesia and memory consolidation indicate about concussions?

Concussions disrupt memory storage

Test your knowledge on memory and the brain with this quiz! Explore questions about famous case studies, memory models, brain structures, and synaptic changes proposed by Hebb.

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